Chad



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The state of Chad is located in the central part of the African continent, its capital is the city of N'Djamena. Chad has no outlet to the sea; it shares borders with Libya, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger. According to data for July 2010, the average life expectancy for women is forty-nine years, for men - forty-seven years.

According to the 1993 census, more than two hundred ethnic groups live in Chad, of which twelve percent belong to the Arabs and twenty-eight percent to the Sara people. The census also gave data on the religious beliefs of the inhabitants of Chad - the majority are Muslims (Muslims own more than fifty-three percent of the total population), more than twenty percent of the population are Catholics, and more than fourteen are Protestants. Roughly seven percent of the population is animist. Atheists - three percent.

There are two official languages ​​- Arabic and French. In total, there are about one hundred and twenty languages ​​and dialects, for example, in the southern part of the country, the Sara languages ​​are popular. The differences between the northern and southern parts of the country are very clearly visible: they are visible both in the way of life and in traditions.

Chad has a rich historical background. On its modern territory, about 4 thousand years BC. e. lived negroids, whose main occupation was hunting. The state formation originated in the ninth century AD - in the immediate vicinity of Lake Chad. It was named Kanem. Several centuries later - in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries - Kanem significantly expanded its territory, which stretches from Lake Chad to the Tibersi highlands. The eleventh century brought with it the process of Arab Islamization. The ruling elite of the country was the first to convert to the Muslim faith. Kanem did not last long, and by the end of the fourteenth century such a state did not exist. New states on the territory of modern Chad arose in the sixteenth century. This is Bagirmi - south of Lake Chad and Wadai - east of it. It cannot be said that the states led a peaceful life, they were aggressively disposed not only against their neighbors, but also against each other. In the course of their constant wars, they captured a huge number of slaves, who were subsequently sold on slave markets. Until the nineteenth century, both states existed separately, but in the nineteenth century they became integral parts of the Rabbach state.

Chad is an illiterate country. Indeed, based on the 2000 estimate, it turns out that only twelve percent of women and forty percent of men are literate.

Chad is an urbanized country. In contrast, the share of the urban population is about thirty percent of the total population (twenty-seven percent in 2008).

Chad is a poor country. At least eighty percent of the country's population is below the poverty line. In 2009, the gross domestic product was one thousand six hundred dollars per person, which corresponds to one hundred and ninety-sixth place in the world. At the moment, the state is dependent on foreign investment and on assistance from other states. The leading economy is the agricultural sector. Thus, up to eighty percent of the working population are engaged in subsistence farming. Mainly, it is represented by livestock breeding (camels, goats and sheep). Potatoes, rice, peanuts, millet, sorghum, and cotton are grown. Agriculture provides up to sixty percent of the gross domestic product. The country has deposits of oil and copper, tantalum and tin, beryl and gold, uranium and bauxite. As for oil, its production in significant volumes began at the end of 2003; Chinese and American companies contribute to the development of this industry. Already in 2004, oil became one of the most important items of Chadian export. In addition to oil production, the industry is represented by brewing, meat processing, cotton processing, as well as the production of cigarettes and soap accessories.

Chad is a country with a negative trade balance. In contrast, exports are at least twice as large as imports. So, in 2008, the value of imported products was $ 1900 million, and exported products - $ 4300 million. At the same time, the main articles of import are textile, food and industrial products, and exports are cotton, livestock, oil. The main buyers of Chadian products are France, Japan, Taiwan and the United States of America. The United States is the undoubted leader in this regard and buys more than ninety percent of Chad's exports. The main suppliers are Germany, the United States of America (about eight percent), Ukraine, China, Cameroon, France (about eighteen percent).

Chad has an unfavorable health situation. This is true. In fact, parasitic and infectious diseases have spread in the country. Intestinal infections are often caused by a lack of drinking water. Thus, clean water is always available only to about twenty-seven percent of the population of Chad. The result is a low life expectancy, averaging forty-eight years. In this regard, it is very indicative that only twenty-nine percent of the population of Chad (2000 data) can receive at least some kind of assistance from medical services, and only in cities such as Abéchet, N'Djamena and a number of others, there are medical institutions. profile. Health care spending is just over three percent of gross domestic product. 2003 showed that the rate of growth in the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was almost five percent; in total, there were about two hundred thousand people with positive HIV and already suffering from AIDS.

Primary education is the main stage of education. It really is. Public secondary schools appeared in the country only in 1942, before that those who wanted to get secondary education had to go to the Republic of the Congo or Brazzaville. However, until the sixties of the last century, the school curriculum in the newly opened secondary Chadian schools was not certified. In 1960, the goal of expanding universal primary education was announced, with everyone attending school until the age of 12. And yet the level of education in Chad continued to be at an extremely low level, so in 1971 only twelve percent of men and one percent of women could speak French, write and read. It should be noted that at that time French was the only official language of Chad. Although a minority of the population also spoke Arabic (about eight percent). There are many problems in the promotion of education, among which there is a shortage of teachers and an insufficient level of their training, and extremely weak equipment of schools, and insufficient funding. The number of students in one class could reach one hundred people, which is associated with overcrowding. Progressive trends were noted in the 70s and 80s. twentieth century, when even the first university was opened in N'Djamena.

Cereals are Chad's staple foods. In particular, millet. Donuts "fangasu" are made from it (as a rule, they are prepared for breakfast), pancakes, etc. In general, the peculiarities of the national cuisine of Chad are equally inherent in the rest of the region. There are many options for preparing food from cereals. Both in the southern and northern parts of Chad, the so-called "bule" made from cereals is popular. "Bule" is a pasta that is dipped into a sauce in the form of pre-rolled balls. Wheat grown in Chad is in short supply, and rice, sorghum and cassava are spreading.

Meat is a scarce product in Chad. On the contrary, dishes that include lamb, poultry, beef are traditional for different regions of Chad. It is especially worth noting the northern part of the country, where cattle breeding is the leading type of activity. As for pork, as you know, Muslims do not eat it. However, in the south of the country, in N'Djamena, pork is not a rare ingredient in local dishes. Garnishes for meat dishes are French bread, various salads, rice, local sauces.

Fish is a popular product in the country. Chadian chefs know more than a dozen recipes for dishes from carp, tilapia, okra, eel, and perch. Fish is served both fried and smoked, and salted and dried. Fried fish is often seasoned with a sauce. Fish is also exported to some countries. For example, “gang” and “salanga” are supplied to Nigeria and Cameroon. In the first case, we are talking about large smoked fish, in the second - about small salted or dried.

Fruit is a common “guest” on Chadian tables. In general, there is a strong lack of fruit throughout the country. Many fruits are expensive because they are imported. Only in the south of Chad, the range of fruits grown is quite impressive (these are bananas, and guava, and mangoes, etc.). It is here that the dishes, the ingredients of which are fruits, are quite common. In addition, raisins and dates are grown in the northern Chadian oases.

Hibiscus is a traditional Chadian drink. Indeed, this drink is the most popular among the people of Chad. Cloves or cinnamon are often added to it, while the main component is hibiscus flowers. Hibiscus is drunk almost everywhere, it is offered as a sign of respect when receiving guests (in this regard, its function is similar to that of coffee). In any corner of Chad, you can also find such a drink as "jus de fruit". It is a kind of fruit cocktail. Ice, cardamom and milk are added to it. As for alcoholic beverages, Muslims do not drink them on religious grounds. At the same time, in the southern regions of Chad, wine made from white and red millet is popular (the first is called "koshe", the second - "billy-billy"). Strong alcoholic drinks are also made from millet. Alcohol is also imported from abroad, but you can buy it only at a high price and only in large cities.

There is a certain amount of social tension within Chad. The fact is that in Chad, two sub-ethnic formations are clearly distinguished, which represent, as it were, two branches of the culture of this country. The reasons for the emerging tension in the differences in the way of life of the northern and southern parts of Chadian society. As for the southern part of the population of Chad, the Christian faith dominates among them. Almost all the inhabitants of these areas belong to the Shari-nil language group (Bagirmi, Massa, Moussei, Mundang, Hausa, Sarah, Masa and other tribal groups). The most common group is Sarah. Its name is often carried over to the entire Christian population of the country. Despite this, neighboring tribes often have different customs and may even differ in language. The northern part of the population of Chad are adherents of Islam. Moreover, the inhabitants of these areas profess this religion in its orthodox form. It is home to the nomads Gorane, Daza, Teda and other tribes of the Tuareg group, as well as the tribes of Hajerai, Zaghawa, Bulala, Kanembu, Fulbe, Hausi, Kotoko and others. Tribesmen build their life to a certain extent in isolation from other tribes, each of which can boast of its own belligerence and whose representatives are unusually proud people. Folklore is well developed here, it has its own musical traditions.

Clans are the basis of the social organization of Chadian society. To varying degrees, the clan system is inherent in both the northern and southern parts of the country. In the north of Chad, the Arab type of kinship was established. The main unit of the local clan system is the "kishimbet", headed by a "shaykh" or "sheikh" (as the elder is called). Kishimbet is nothing more than a group of male relatives. Kishimbet members not only live in the same neighborhood, but also roam along the same routes. Within the clan, the sheikh has unlimited powers. Among other things, the sheikh has the right to break off or, conversely, establish and maintain relations with neighboring clans, he is responsible for conducting ceremonies and rituals, monitors the observance of religious rules. Marriages between members of different classes are very common. At the same time, it is more often the closely related union of a man and a woman that takes place, because otherwise it is very difficult to observe all the rituals and procedures. Although the southern part of the country is also characterized by the clan organization of society, freer relations between clans have been established on its territory. Marriage between two members of different clans is noticeably easier than in the north. At thirteen or fourteen years old, the girl is usually already married, or at least engaged. For the first 3 months, the bride lives in the family of the chosen one. At the end of this period, she returns to her father's house, where the groom must redo a huge number of cases, in particular, build a hut for his mother-in-law and work 3 years in the fields. Interestingly, southern tribal groups are often led by a woman, playing the role of head of the household.

Livestock is the main source of income for the nomadic people. For nomads, this is indeed the case. At the same time, agricultural areas are quite common on the territory of Chad, mainly in the oases zone and in the southern part of the country. Inhabitants of northern Chad extract natron and salt. In addition, nomads are regarded as smugglers. They are born traders who skillfully organize communications between the Maghreb and Central African countries. For the nomadic people, such a type of dwelling is characteristic as a tent. The sedentary inhabitants of Chad build adobe or adobe houses according to the Arab tradition.

The Chadians are a friendly people with a rich culture. They are very calm people. However, they always demand respect for their culture and traditions. Greetings and congratulations are of the utmost importance in Chad. There are many special rituals for each occasion. The form of greeting is associated not only with social status, status of a person, his age, etc., but even with the time of day. In many parts of the country there is a tradition to present guests with a small present. In this case, a reciprocal gesture will be appreciated as a sign of attention. The differences between the southern and northern parts of Chad are clearly manifested in the features associated with human behavior in a given situation. For example, if in the north the Chad seems suspicious of the fact that his interlocutor does not look into his eyes, then in the south it will seem like a manifestation of ignorance.


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