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Fungi (Fungi or Mycetes) are a group of special organisms that differ from flora and fauna in their specific species and origin. There are several thousand species of mushrooms that are found in all corners of the globe, including on land, on water, as well as inside some animals and plants. Mushrooms reproduce only by spores, because they do not have their own leaves and stems.
- saprophytic fungi - feed on the remains of other animals and plants. In addition, they often make food inedible. For example, a rotten apple or a moldy jam is all the result of the activity of saprophytic fungi;
- parasitic fungi - feed on living organisms, while causing them significant harm. They can be found on living trees (autumn mushroom) and even on other mushrooms.
- fungi-symbionts (mycorrhiza, lichens) - cannot exist without other plants. They are formed due to the braiding of the roots with their threads, as well as the penetration into the root of other plants, thereby feeding on the substances necessary for them from there.
Also, mushrooms are classified as edible and inedible. Edible mushrooms can be eaten as they do not contain any toxic substances and do not have an unpleasant smell. Inedible mushrooms, accordingly, cannot be used for food, as they contain poisonous substances that can be poisoned.
Poisonous mushrooms smell bad. Is not a fact. It is known that toadstool, for example, has a sweetish, very pleasant smell.
Wormy mushrooms can be used for cooking, just before that you need to throw them into the water so that all the worms come out. In no case should you do this! Some worm will definitely remain in the mushroom, and then, having eaten such a mushroom, you can, at best, get off with simple poisoning, at worst - it will end in death.
The mushroom will not become poisonous if boiled for a long time. Complete absurdity! Boiling water will in no way affect the poison, toxic substances have been and will remain in the mushroom. Therefore, do not experiment, such an experiment will not end with anything good for you.
If, when boiling mushrooms, you stir them with a silver spoon, and it darkens, it means that a poisonous mushroom has got into the pan. This is not entirely true. Silver can darken even from simple salt, in addition, silver things still darken over the years, therefore, a silver ladle is not the best indicator for identifying poisonous mushrooms.
Mushrooms cannot be eaten raw - poisoning is guaranteed. This statement is debatable. If the mushrooms did not grow near the nuclear power plant or near the highway, then nothing bad will happen if you try them a little. Different mushrooms have a corresponding taste: some mushrooms have a sharp taste, some - bitter. But only the freshest mushroom is really fragrant and tasty.
Mushrooms canned at home can be poisoned, since a microbe forms in the jar, leading to a dangerous infectious disease - botulism. Botulism is indeed a very dangerous and deadly infection. Its causative agent is a microbe - Clostridium, which can live in the soil for a long time. Thus, it can easily get into food (the same mushroom, for example), and if this product is preserved, then, due to the fact that air will not flow, Clostridium will begin to produce a very strong poison called botulinum toxin (it many times stronger than the venom of rattlesnakes). This poison spreads throughout the jar in the form of nests, so not all people who ate these canned foods from the same jar may become poisoned. However, if mushrooms are carefully selected and processed before canning, then all botulism bacilli will die, and the likelihood of poisoning will disappear.
When picking mushrooms, you need to twist them, not cut them off. This is a deep misconception. When the mushroom is twisted, its mycelium is destroyed, as a result of which it no longer has the opportunity to grow again.
If there is no rain for a long time, then many worms start in the mushrooms. In fact, the number of worms in mushrooms is practically independent of precipitation. The air temperature plays the main role. In warm weather, there are more worms, and, conversely, in cold weather - fewer.
A mushroom can grow in just a couple of hours. In fact, mushrooms grow a maximum of one or two centimeters per day. If conditions are favorable, then up to four centimeters. The life span of mushrooms is not long - 10-11 days. After this period, the mushroom disappears from the mycelium and soon becomes dust.
The collected mushrooms do not have to be processed immediately, you can leave it until the next day. If you follow this statement, then by the beginning of the next day not a single edible mushroom will remain in the basket - they will all turn into poisonous. This is due to the fact that in the mushrooms not processed immediately, the process of decay of fat and protein substances occurs, and this is what makes the mushrooms poisonous. By the way, for the same reason, it is not recommended to collect old mushrooms, it is better to bypass them.